Blood pressure low BP High BP: Blood pressure or blood pressure is the pressure due to which blood is pumped from the heart around the body. This article deals with systolic and diastolic pressure, how blood pressure is measured, what is high blood pressure, etc.
What is blood pressure
We all know that blood is red in color, which is transmitted in our body. This is because of red color because it has a red pigment called hemoglobin . It consists of plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Blood helps in transporting substances like oxygen, carbon dioxide, digested food etc. from one part of the body to another. It protects us from diseases and also regulates blood temperature.
When the heart beats, it pumps blood around the body to transport energy and oxygen to the body. As the blood spreads throughout the body, it pushes against the sides of the blood vessels. The force of moving blood vessels creates pressure, which is known as blood pressure. Therefore, we can define that blood pressure is the pressure or pressure in which blood is pumped around the body by the heart. If the blood pressure is high or high, then additional stress arises on the arteries or heart and heart attack may also occur. Therefore, it is very important to maintain blood pressure normal.
What is normal blood pressure?
Blood pressure can be stated as two values such as systolic pressure and diastolic pressure.
What is systole and diastole ?
The heart pumps blood and during this process it shrinks and expands. In a stage of heart beating ie when the heart shrinks and pumps blood into the arteries it is called systole and in the phase of the heart bones when the heart expands or relaxes and allows the chambers to fill with blood It is called diastole.
Systolic & Diastolic
During the contraction phase, the maximum pressure at which the heart leaves the bloodstream through the main artery is called systolic pressure. The minimum arterial pressure during the heart’s relax or expansion phase is called diastolic pressure.
Systolic pressure is 120 mm Hg.
Diastolic pressure is 80 mm Hg.
Therefore, normal blood pressure is 120/80 but this can vary from time to time and between individuals.
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First of all, the person whose blood pressure has to be measured, wraps the rubber band around the arm of the person. Then the air is pumped into the brachial artery at a pressure of 200 mm Hg and the rubber strap increases. You can see this pressure in the Yantra sphygmomanometer. At this time, when the stethoscope was placed on the artery of the hand, no sound was heard.
– Now, the rubber bandage pressure is reduced by deflating and the first taping sound is heard from the pressure of the bandage through a stethoscope placed on the artery is called systolic pressure.
– When the rubber strap pressure is further reduced by deflating and the taping sound is heard disappearing from the strap pressure through a stethoscope placed on the artery, it is called diastolic pressure.
Blood Pressure measurement number means:
WHO standards in adults (> 18 years)
There is no clear border between normal blood pressure and hypertension.
The level of blood pressure is quantitatively linked to cardiovascular risk.
|Humeral blood pressure in millimeters of mercury: mmHg||Systolic pressure (mmHg)||Diastolic pressure (mmHg)|
PA normal high
|Inf or equal to 120|
Inf or equal to 130
130 – 139
|Inf or equal to 80|
Inf or equal to 85
85 – 89
|Stage 1 HTA|
Stage 2 HTA
Stage 3 HTA
Isolated systolic hypertension
|140 – 159|
160 – 179
Sup ou = 180
Sup ou = 140
|90 – 99|
100 – 109
Sup or = 110
NB: the unit in mmHg remains valid although the international standard recommends the unit of measurement in kilopascals kPa (1mmHg = 0.133 kPa).
For example 16 kPa = 120 mmHg.
Does blood pressure change?
Blood pressure is the pressure that the blood exerts as it passes through the blood vessels. In healthy people, the values usually remain between 120 × 80 and 139x89mmHg , while in hypertensive people they are equal to or above 140x90mmHg. However, the result of blood pressure measurement is not fixed and can change throughout the day.
Exercise and coffee can alter blood pressure
According to cardiologist Paulo César Sadala Ferreira, “the pressure does not usually vary significantly throughout the day, unless there are reasons for that”. He cites the practice of physical exercises, the consumption of cigarettes and coffee and the use of medications as factors that can increase blood pressure during the day.
Coffee and energy drinks are stimulating drinks that contain caffeine in their composition. This substance, with the release of adrenaline, stimulates the functioning and the performance of the organism, increasing the heartbeat and increasing the pressure.
While practicing physical exercises, the heart rate and blood pressure increase to respond to the movement and effort made by the body, although it contributes to the control of hypertension in the long run . The nicotine present in cigarettes stimulates the release of a compound that also raises the pressure.
Pressure should be measured with patient at rest (Blood pressure low BP High BP)
Because of these variations, the recommendation is to measure the pressure while resting and sitting . Go to the bathroom up to ten minutes before, do not exercise in the previous hour and do not consume cigarettes or alcohol until 30 minutes before. The pressure must be checked at least once a year by those who do not suffer from heart problems.
If your blood pressure is a little different than usual, there is no reason for despair: these changes in blood pressure numbers are considered normal, but the doctor makes a reservation. “Any pressure that rises to values equal to or greater than 140x90mmHg is altered and, therefore, one should seek a doctor for a better evaluation”, recommends Ferreira.
High Blood Pressure Causes, Symptoms & remedies
Two values are distinguished: maximum pressure (systolic) and minimum pressure (diastolic) . The first represents the moment when the heart contracts and pushes the blood into the arteries through the aortic valve, the second coincides with the relaxation phase of the heart muscle, which fills with blood.
Blood pressure is recorded at the peripheral level and measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg).
How widespread it is
Recent estimates state that 25-30 percent of the population suffers from hypertension . It mainly affects the elderly : over 65 years of age, the share of hypertensives exceeds 80 percent, under 30 years of age suffers 5 percent.
One of the biggest problems related to the spread of the disease concerns patient awareness: it is estimated that only half of those with high blood pressure are aware of their problem. This complicates prevention and treatment interventions a lot.
Causes – High BP (Blood pressure low BP High BP)
In 95 percent of cases the cause of hypertension is unknown . We then speak of primary, idiopathic or essential hypertension.
In the remaining 5 percent of cases, hypertension is secondary to other diseases . Typically it is chronic renal failure, pheochromocytoma or renal artery stenosis. Taking certain medications such as pain relievers or birth control pills can also cause secondary hypertension.
There are also lifestyle factors that can promote the onset of hypertension such as cigarette smoking, alcohol abuse, sedentary lifestyle and a diet rich in animal fats .
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Symptoms and diagnosis – Blood pressure low BP High BP
Arterial hypertension generally does not give definite and recognizable symptoms . For this reason it is often called the “silent killer”.
Palpitations, headaches , dizziness, nervousness, fatigue, ringing in the ears or nasal nosebleeds may however occur . These symptoms occur in particular when the blood pressure registers a marked rise (hypertensive crisis).
The diagnosis is made by measuring the pressure with a special instrument, called sphygmomanometer . However, the single measurement, which can be carried out in a pharmacy or at home, is not indicative. To have a certain diagnosis, you must contact your family doctor.
When the doctor evaluates a patient with a suspicion of hypertension, he may resort to further tests, in order to highlight the presence of risk factors (such as high cholesterol or diabetes ), of other diseases causing secondary hypertension or of damage to other organs. The most commonly prescribed tests include pressure holter or ambulatory monitoring or, ecodoppler , electrocardiogram , kidney function tests , eye fundus examination .
Home blood pressure measurement is very useful , especially for those with a history of hypertension in the family. If measured correctly and constantly, it allows you to keep values under control and diagnose the disease promptly.
In addition, home measurements tend to be more regular than those obtained in the medical environment, the values of which tend to be higher due to “white coat” anxiety.
To measure the pressure correctly you need to be seated in a comfortable and relaxed position, with your forearm resting on a table. The cuff of the sphygmomanometer must be positioned above the bend of the elbow, without over tightening. Most of the instruments on the market today measure blood pressure values automatically. The most propitious moments to take the measurement are when you wake up or during the evening.
With a classic sphygmomanometer, which also requires the use of the phonendoscope, some additional precautions are necessary. The cuff should be inflated to a value of about 30 mmHg higher than that corresponding to the disappearance of the beat, with the phonendoscope resting on the inside of the arm in correspondence with the brachial artery. It will therefore be necessary to let the air out of the cuff slowly (about 2 mmHg per second). During this procedure, a first “noise” will be clearly heard when the blood begins to flow back into the artery: the corresponding value will be that of systolic pressure (ie the maximum pressure). As the air continues to escape, the noises will first become more intense, then gradually weaker:
The World Health Organization has classified hypertension into the following categories, based on the systolic and diastolic blood pressure values, expressed in millimeters of mercury (mmHg).
|Diastolic (minimal)||Systolic (maximum)|
|Grade 1 hypertension – borderline||90-94||140-149|
|Grade 1 hypertension – mild||95-99||150-159|
|Grade 2 hypertension – moderate||100-109||160-179|
|Grade 3 hypertension – severe||≥110||≥180|
|Borderline isolated systolic hypertension||<90||140-149|
|Isolated systolic hypertension||<90||≥150|
Complications – Blood pressure low BP High BP
The main and most dangerous consequences are heart attack and stroke . In fact, hypertension increases the cardiovascular risk, that is, the probability of developing a thrombus inside a blood vessel with consequent obstruction of the same.
Kidney disorders may also occur , which mainly depend on the reduced ability of the organs to properly filter the blood, causing kidney failure.
There is also a certain margin of risk for the eyes. The most common complication in this case is hypertensive retinopathy , an eye disease that damages the blood vessels of the retina. In severe cases, the pathology can cause blurred vision and distortion of the images.
Care of hypertension
There are several medications for the treatment of hypertension and should be taken only if prescribed by a doctor, who will evaluate any individual risk factors and the presence of other pathologies or damage to other organs.
The main categories are: diuretics, beta blockers, Ace inhibitors, angiotensin inhibitors, calcium channel blockers, alpha blockers, vasodilators.
There is talk of resistant hypertension in the event that drug therapy is unable to bring blood pressure back to normal, even excluding any causes of secondary hypertension.
The main objective of the therapy against hypertension is not only to bring the values back to normal, but also to protect the organs that could possibly be affected by the damage that high blood pressure can cause, or to remedy them if they have already occurred, as in the case of left ventricular hypertrophy.
Even the lifestyle and the ‘ power can be of great help to reduce blood pressure, especially when the values are slightly higher than normal. It is believed that lowering the pressure by only 5 mmHg allows to significantly reduce the risk of stroke (34%) and heart attacks (21%). The risk of developing other conditions such as vascular dementia or atrial fibrillation is also reduced .
When to see your doctor (Blood pressure low BP High BP)
Pressure is considered normal when the minimum is less than 80 mmHg and the maximum is less than 120 mmHg. When the values are higher than these parameters in a constant way it is good to contact the family doctor.
According to the parameters adopted in medicine, it was considered hypertensive when the values exceed the minimum 90 mmHg and the maximum 140 mmHg . When only the maximum value is above the norm, the diagnosis made is isolated systolic hypertension.
Prevention (Blood pressure low BP High BP)
Prevention of hypertension mainly passes through the adoption of a correct lifestyle.
As far as nutrition is concerned , a diet rich in fiber and low in saturated fats (especially if of animal origin) helps to keep the pressure under control. Fruits and vegetables are also particularly important as they are rich in elements such as potassium , which counteracts the action of sodium at a cellular level, and can prevent the onset of alterations in the nerves, endocrine system and blood vessels.
It is also fundamental to reduce the salt intake . The recommended daily amount of salt is 5 grams, corresponding to about a teaspoon. This quantity does not only concern salt added to food, but also that already present in foods such as preserves, cheeses, salami and sausages. Ideally, the intake of a food rich in salt should be compensated for another with a low content.
From there also imitate the drinking of alcohol : no more than two glasses of wine a day for men, no more than one for women.
A constant physical activity and adjust , especially if they agreed with your doctor, can have many benefits for cardiovascular health. Aerobic (or cardio fitness) activity can significantly improve the functionality of the cardiovascular system and the body’s ability to transport oxygen, factors that have obvious positive effects on the regulation of blood pressure.
In principle, it is estimated that at least 30 minutes of brisk walking or the practice of sports such as swimming or cycling at least five times a week can reduce blood pressure by around 4-9 mmHg. To produce obvious and lasting positive effects, physical activity should last for at least six months.
Even reducing or otherwise learning to manage stress can have a decisive influence on hypertension. It is known that anxiety disorders and panic attacks have effects on the cardiovascular system and can cause symptoms of transient hypertension crisis. For this reason, it may be useful to use relaxation or meditation techniques to remove the original cause of stress.
It should be remembered, in any case, that true hypertension is not considered a transient syndrome and is not a consequence of stressful events. Drug therapy agreed with your doctor should be followed in any case.
Lower blood pressure (Hypo tension) (Blood pressure low BP High BP)
Through the arteries, veins and capillaries throughout the body, the heart keeps pumping an irreversible supply of blood. Blood pressure is the measurement of the force of blood on the walls of the arteries during blood flow.
It is measured in mercury millimeters (mmHg) and recorded in two measurements:
- Systolic pressure – the pressure when your heart beats and blood enters your arteries
- Retractable pressure – the pressure when your heart rests between two beats
For example, if your systolic blood pressure is 120 mmHg and your systolic blood pressure is 80 mmHg, your blood pressure is 80 to 120, usually written as 120/80.
Normal blood pressure is between 90/60 and 140/90. If your reading is 140/90 or higher, then you have high blood pressure (hypertension), which puts you at high risk of causing serious health diseases like heart attack or stroke .
Individuals with blood pressure readings of about 90/60 or less are generally considered to be low blood pressure holders.
Why is my blood pressure low? (Blood pressure low BP High BP)
Your blood pressure can be due to many reasons including time of day, your age, temperature, any medicine being taken, injury and some diseases.
Symptoms of low blood pressure:
Dizziness, Dark eye shadow in front of eyes, Blurring, Vomiting like fatigue, Difficulty in concentrating, Hands and feet cold, Face White, Difficulty in breathing, Difficulty in eating.
Causes of low BP
There can be several reasons behind the problem of low blood pressure, the main of which are:
- Stress, fear, insecurity or pain (most common causes of syncope)
- Dehydration that reduces blood volume.
- Excessive blood donation
- Internal bleeding
- Deep injury due to which blood flow has increased.
- Medicines for high blood pressure
- Medications for depression
- heart disease
- Nervous System Disorder, Parkinson’s Disease
Home remedies for low blood pressure (Blood pressure low BP High BP)
1. Infusion of rosemary and honey for low blood pressure
According to popular beliefs, the drink prepared with rosemary and honey, due to its antioxidant , vitamin and mineral content , could help hydrate the body and regulate blood pressure.
- 1 cup of water (250 ml).
- ½ tablespoon dried rosemary (5 g).
- 1 tablespoon of honey (25 g).
- Boil a cup of water.
- Once it comes to a boil, remove it and add the rosemary.
- Let it sit for 10 minutes, strain it and sweeten it with honey.
2. Coconut and lemon water for low blood pressure
According to popular wisdom, a refreshing tropical drink, such as that made with coconut water and lemon, can help restore the body’s electrolytes and regulate blood pressure.
Since both ingredients contain essential minerals and antioxidants that, after being assimilated, are believed to help improve blood flow through the veins .
- 1 cup of organic coconut water (250 ml).
- 2 tablespoons lemon juice (20 ml).
- Optional: cinnamon (powder or branch).
- Mix the organic coconut water with the couple of tablespoons of lemon juice.
3. Carrot and honey juice
Carrot and honey juice is a natural drink, very easy to prepare, which can help to recover energy when there are stress drops.
- 5 large carrots
- 2 tablespoons of honey (50 g).
Preparation (Blood pressure low BP High BP)
- Obtain the natural juice of carrots, passing them through a juice extractor.
- Mix it with the spoonfuls of honey and serve immediately.
4. Basil and honey extract drink
Another drink that, according to popular beliefs, could be useful in case of low blood pressure, is the basil and honey extract drink.
To prepare it, you only need:
- 15 basil leaves.
- ¼ cup of water (62 ml).
- 1 tablespoon of honey (25 g).
Preparation (Blood pressure low BP High BP)
- Crush the basil leaves.
- Then, put them in a thin cloth or strainer to squeeze them until you get their juice.
- Pour the obtained liquid into the water and add the honey.
5. Water with lemon, salt and sugar
This drink combines the properties of lemon with salt and sugar and helps us improve low blood pressure, especially when it comes to dehydration .
Therefore, and food hese help restore the energy level and, among other things, benefit circulation and nervous system.
- 1 cup of water (250 ml).
- 3 tablespoons lemon juice (30 ml).
- ¼ teaspoon salt (1.2 g).
- ½ teaspoon of sugar (2.5 g).
Preparation – Blood pressure low BP High BP
- Add all the ingredients in the cup of water and stir them until they are well integrated.
Final note – Blood pressure low BP High BP
If you suffer from low blood pressure, you should follow your doctor’s instructions first. In a complementary way, remember to maintain good lifestyle habits, such as a balanced diet and an exercise routine according to your needs.
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