What is the coronavirus ? How many people have died ? What are the CoronaVirus Symptoms? We are asking these question to ourselves after the disease started to spread. This curiosity is natural , as it is a new disease, although experts, Governments and the World Health Organization (WHO) have issued a message of tranquility. And also noted that Covid-19 is less virulent than other similar epidemics from previous years.
At Google, searches related to the disease skyrocketed . If we look at the research related to the term “coronavirus. We can see some of the issues that most concern users in Brazil and Spain. See some of them, as well as other questions, below.
What is the coronavirus?
According to Google search trends, we mainly want to know what it is, how it is transmitted and what are the symptoms it causes. This virus infects the respiratory tract and spreads through direct contact and through droplets of saliva expelled by a carrier when coughing. Symptoms range from cough and fever to acute respiratory failure and pneumonia.
Among the related terms, the question about the origin of the disease continues to appear. There is still no definitive answer, although it is suspected that it may have passed from pangolin (an Asian mammal similar to the anteater) to humans. But it could also be that these animals got sick like humans.
Coronaviruses are a family of viruses that were discovered in the 1960s but whose origin is still unknown. Its different types cause different diseases, from a cold to a severe respiratory syndrome (a severe form of pneu6–monia ).
Much of the coronaviruses are not dangerous and can be treated effectively. In fact, most people get a coronavirus at some time in their life, usually during their childhood. Although they are more frequent in autumn or winter, they can be purchased at any time of the year.
The coronavirus owes its name to the appearance it presents, since it is very similar to a crown or a halo. It is a type of virus present in both humans and animals.
Epidemic outbreaks caused by coronaviruses
In recent years, three major epidemic outbreaks caused by coronaviruses have been described:
SARS-CoV : The acute and severe respiratory syndrome (SARS, also known as SARS and SARS) began in November 2002 in China. Affected more than 8,000 people in 37 countries and caused more than 700 deaths. The mortality of SARS-Cov has been estimated at approximately 10%.
MERS-CoV : The coronavirus that causes the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) was first detected in 2012 in Saudi Arabia. More than 2,400 cases of infection have been reported in October 2019 in different countries, with more than 800 deaths. Lethality is therefore 35%.
COVID-19 : At the end of December 2019, the first cases of a new coronavirus were reported in the city of Wuhan (China). Since then the drip of new infected by the SARS-CoV-2 virus (initially called 2019nCoV), which causes COVID-19, has been continuous and its transmission from person to person has accelerated. Declared cases of Wuhan’s pneumonia already far exceed those of the SARS epidemic, but the mortality rate is lower.
There are already infected people in multiple countries, but experts insist that there are no reasons for alarm. The most affected country in Europe is Italy. Although positive cases have been confirmed in Spain (which contracted the virus in other countries), health authorities and scientific societies believe that our country is prepared to contain the transmission in case of an epidemic outbreak .
What are the CoronaVirus Symptoms?
Causes – CoronaVirus Symptoms
Coronaviruses are transmitted in a limited way among humans, but to date the origin of these viruses is unknown. In any case, it is known that certain animals, such as bats, act as reservoirs.
As in other viruses that cause pneumonia, when transmitted in humans, infection is usually caused by the respiratory route. Through the respiratory droplets that people produce when they cough, sneeze or speak.
Everything seems to indicate that the new coronavirus, COVID-19 , also known as Wuhan’s coronavirus, has an animal origin. In fact, the first cases have been related to a live animal market in the city of Wuhan in China.
As for the MERS, camels are likely to be an important reservoir for this type of coronavirus. An animal source of infection in humans, as specified by the World Health Organization in its descriptive note on the disease . However, the specific role of camels in the transmission of the virus and also the exact route or routes of transmission are unknown.
In origin, the MERS-CoV coronavirus is a zoonotic virus that is transmitted from animals to people . As can be seen from the analysis of several of its genomes, it is believed that the virus originated in bats and was transmitted to camels at some point in the distant past.
It is believed that the SARS coronavirus originated in bats, subsequently jumping to some other species of small mammal, such as civet, and finally to humans.
When should I see a doctor?
If you have been to countries with confirmed cases and have a fever, cough, difficulty breathing or other respiratory symptoms, you should seek care and report the trip abroad. Brazil works with a higher level of alert for people from the following countries: Germany, Australia, United Arab Emirates, Philippines, France, Iran, Italy, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, North Korea, Thailand, Vietnam and Cambodia, in addition to China .
Do I need a mask?
In Spain, searches for the word “mask” have also been growing, coinciding with the current status of the coronavirus . María Neira, director of Public Health at WHO, told Radio SER that the use of masks “where the virus does not circulate is of no use” and that the main form of prevention is hygiene. Rosalía Gozalo, pharmacist and director of Dermopharmacy and Sanitary Products at the Official College of Pharmacists in Madrid, explains to EL PAÍS that the fundamental is hand and body hygienewith hydroalcoholic gel or other good quality sanitizers.
The masks, according to the specialist, are only necessary for immunosuppressed people (such as those recovering from a transplant, for example), because their body has less capacity to fight infections. But that would also be necessary for these patients if there was a flu epidemic like each winter, for example.
Advice of WHO
The WHO advises that, if you are healthy, you should only wear a mask “if you attend someone in whom the infection is suspected”. This is what health professionals in hospitals do, for example.
In fact, the Ministry of Health has released a series of preventive measures that do not mention masks: washing your hands frequently with water and soap or alcohol-based hand sanitizer; avoid touching the eyes, nose and mouth with unwashed hands;
Avoid close contact with sick people; stay home when you are sick; cover your mouth and nose when you cough or sneeze with a tissue and throw it in the trash; and clean and disinfect frequently touched objects and surfaces. These precautions apply to other respiratory viruses, such as the common flu.
How many people have died?
This Wednesday, February 25, we mentioned more than 80,000 infected and more than 2,700 dead (almost all in Hubei, the Chinese province where Wuhan is located and where the epidemic started ).
The mortality rate is low: between 2% and 4% of those diagnosed in Wuhan, and 0.7% in the rest of the world. For comparison, severe acute respiratory syndrome ( SARS ) had a mortality rate of 10%. And Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) even killed 35% of diagnosed patients. Mortality rates are lower outside the epicenter of the epidemic because there are fewer infections and because the cases could be detected earlier. In many cases, the dead also had pre-existing illnesses.
This mortality increases with age. According to a study with data from China, from 70 years old it reaches 8%, and for those over 80 it is 14.8%. For those under 50, it does not reach 0.5%.
What is the treatment?
There is no specific treatment or vaccine. The Ministry of Health recommends rest and consumption of plenty of water, in addition to some measures adopted to relieve symptoms (such as pain relievers), according to each case.
Are pregnant women at higher risk for the disease?
The Ministry of Health does not provide any specific guidance for pregnant women. In the United States, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) says there is not enough information about it so far. But pregnant women are known to undergo changes in their immune systems that make them more susceptible to viral respiratory infections in general. The agency advises that this group should take the same precautions against the coronavirus as the general population.
What is the difference between epidemic and pandemic?
An epidemic is the punctual spread of a disease: cases increase until they reach a maxigmum, and then decrease. A pandemic is the worldwide spread of a new disease, as explained by the WHO. In other words, an epidemic that occurs worldwide or in many countries at the same time.
There is talk of a pandemic, for example, to refer to HIV, because its presence is global (although not a small percentage). As of Wednesday, the WHO had not yet declared the coronavirus pandemic.
Prevention – Corona Virus Symptoms
To date, no vaccine or specific treatment is available to combat coronavirus infection.
Maintaining basic hygiene is the most effective way to avoid contracting this virus in places where there is a greater risk of transmission, mainly in areas of the planet where cases have been recorded. It is convenient to wash your hands frequently and avoid contact with people already infected. Specially protection from eyes, nose and mouth. Those who may be in contact with potential affected parties are advised to wear masks and use handkerchiefs to cover their nose and mouth when coughing or sneezing.
When the MERS-Cov emerged, it was reported that products of animal origin properly processed by cooking or pasteurization do not pose any risk of infection. But should be handled with care to avoid contamination by contact with raw products. Camel meat and milk may continue to be consumed after pasteurization, cooking or other heat treatments; However, its raw consumption should be discarded .
These precautions should be followed especially by those who suffer from diabetes, renal insufficiency, chronic pneumopathy or immunosuppression, since they are more at risk of serious illness in case of infection by coronavirus.
Types – CoronaVirus Symptoms
In human coronaviruses, the severity can vary substantially between one type and another.
This variant of coronavirus corresponds to types 229E and OC43, which cause the common symptoms of a cold. Although in the most severe cases they can also cause pneumonia in the elderly or in neonates.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
It is a serious form of pneumonia . It causes respiratory distress and fever over 38 degrees. The 2002 outbreak spread throughout the world, although its frequency has always been greater in East Asia.
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV)
It causes serious respiratory problems , in addition to fever, cough and shortness of breath, although at first it can be asymptomatic . In more severe cases, blood expectoration, diarrhea and vomiting also occur . It had its first outbreak in 2012 and since then many cases have been reported in the Middle East, although it has also reached Europe and the United States.
The new coronavirus detected in late 2019 in China shows a genetic sequence that matches that of SARS by 80%. However, at first it seems less virulent and with lower mortality. Instead, its transmission has been much higher and has already caused several thousand more cases than SARS.
Diagnosis after CoronaVirus Symptoms
In cases of suspected coronavirus, a chest tomography is usually performed to determine the symptoms of pneumonia. As well as other blood coagulation tests, a biochemical analysis and a blood count. Antibody tests and SARS virus isolation are also performed.
Likewise, in order to contain the transmission, an evaluation is made to those people who present the symptoms and who may be prone to contracting the virus.
Temperature control (with thermal cameras and digital thermometers) of people arriving at an airport from affected areas has been one of the measures that have been put in place to detect possible cases of COVID-19 , as made with the previous shoots. Questionnaires are also made to travelers; In case of suspicion, they are subjected to evaluation and, where appropriate, transferred to health centers.
Treatments after Coronavirus Symptoms
There is no vaccine against the human coronavirus that causes a cold. But milder cases can be overcome by following the same steps as a common cold. This does not require medical intervention and simply wash your hands frequently, rest and drink plenty of fluids. The symptoms will disappear within a few days. Pain relievers such as ibuprofen or paracetamol can also relieve sore throats or fever.
In cases of coronavirus SRAS, MERS CoV and COVID-19 , hospital admission is usually convenient . Antivirals, high doses of steroids are given to reduce lung inflammation and respiratory support with oxygen; Sometimes you may need antibiotics, but only if there are supervening bacterial infections, that is, superinfection.
In summary, these types of respiratory infections are treated with antiviral and supportive measures. The treatment is usually adapted according to the severity of the patient. Since there are cases in which severe pneumonia occurs, but in others the manifestations are mild.
Other data on CoronaVirus Symptoms
Patient survival will depend on the type of coronavirus contracted:
- The coronavirus cold have very high rates of recovery and affected virtually all get beat the virus within a few days.
- The coronavirus SARS also exceeded in most cases, but between nine and 12 per cent of cases result in death of the patient. Young patients have more life expectancy, as they tend to have milder symptoms.
- The MERS survival rate is less high, reaching around 36 percent in mortality, as specified by the World Health Organization.
- It is still early to determine the mortality rate of the COVID-19 virus , but it seems lower than the previous ones.
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