The English language is the language of the Indo-European language family and thus it has a distant relationship with languages like Hindi , Urdu , Persian etc. Based on the literature available in Old English, it is known that the writers and poets of ancient age had a special interest in traveling and telling interesting stories. The major compositions of that era are ‘Widsith’, ‘The Wanderer’ and ‘Beolf’. Middle English had two languages. The tradition of earlier Anglo-Saxon literature in the Western language remained intact. Representative works of this branch are ‘The Vision of People’s Plowman’ by William Lagland and ‘Gavet and the Green Knight’ and ‘The Pearl’, composed by some unknown poet. . The second means the representative writer of the southeast branch was-
- John Gover (1325-1408 AD) and
- Chaucer (1340–1400 AD).
Chaucer is considered the first poet of modern English and his compositions have special significance in English literature. After this, he was often followed for a hundred and fifty years and no great poet was born. It was during this period that Caxton first established a raid house in England. There was a special advancement of prose literature with the facility of printing. From about the middle of the 16th century, the influence of European Renaissance began to appear in England . Along with the study of ancient literature, French and Italian literature also began to be studied and the combined influence of these three led to the rise of English literature.
- In the field of poetry, Wyatt, Surrey, ‘Fairy Queen’ pioneer Edmund Spencer (1552-99 AD), Sir Philip Sidney Prabhuti gained special fame.
- The play grew significantly and Green (1562–92 AD), Lily (1554–1606 AD), Thomas Kid (1557–95 AD), Marlowe (1564–93 AD) presented their beautiful works. . The ultimate rise of English drama literature took place in the works of Shakespeare (1564–1616 AD). Shakespeare’s plays and poems are glorious forms of world literature.
- A large number of English plays were written in the seventeenth century. Ben Johnson (1573–1673 AD) composed pleasant and sorrowful plays on the classical ideal, unlike Shakespeare’s romantic plays. Bement and Fletcher successfully produced many happy and sorrow-happy plays.
- Chepman (1559–1634 AD), Bebster (1580–1625 AD), Shirley (1596–1666 AD), Tourno (1575–1626 AD), and Philip Messinger (1583–1648 AD) gave certain certainties The success of the plays earned him special fame. From 1642 AD to 1660 AD, the London theater was closed by the Puritans.
- After 1660 AD, plays were composed and performed again. A new form of grief plays emerged. Its principal authors were Dryden (1631–1700 AD), Aatvain (1652–85 AD) and Lee (1653–92 AD). Sukhanta plays made special progress after 1660 AD. It depicted the life of the upper class in sophisticated language. The principal authors of this class were Etheridge (1634–91 AD), Bikerle (1640–1716 AD) and Congreeve (1670–1729 AD).
- The poem was written in the first half of the century, influenced by Spencer, Shakespeare and Ben Johnson. The principal author of spiritual poetry was John Don (1572–1631 AD), whose works express religious ideas and cherished feelings based on hard imagery. The compositions of Ben Johnson and his followers are relatively simple. The principal poet of this century, John Milton (1608–74 AD), is counted among the great poets of the world. In addition to Sphut Kavya, he has made his name immortal by composing his famous epic ‘The Paradise Lost’.
- The principal poet of the latter half of the century was John Bryden, who achieved special success in writing descriptive and satirical poetry. Dryben’s early English prose was written in imitation of ancient Latin prose. The main authors of this ancient vivid style were Tomas Brown (1605–82 AD), Jeremy Taylor (1613–67 AD), and Milton ‘Drybane, who created new English prose. New prose was formed using the colloquial language of cultured people.
- The English literature of the 18th century was deeply influenced by the neo-Lasik doctrine, which originated and developed mainly in France. Poetry was composed by obeying rules and strict control. This is evident from the writings of the Pope (1688–1744 AD). The same is true of many other poets, but there were some poets whose works were inspired by nature, love and intense emotions.
- In the 18th century, prose was the predominance. The tradition of essays published in newspapers and magazines became strong. The principal essayists were Edison (1672–1719 AD), Steele (1672–1729 AD), Gold Smith (1730–74 AD), and Dr. Johnson (170984 AD).
- In the same century, five famous writers laid the foundation for writing English novels. They were Fielding (1707–54 AD), Richardson (1689–1761 AD), Smollett (1721–70 AD), Stern (1713–68 AD), and Goldsmith. There was no significant advancement of plays during this period. Most plays were distorted by excessive displays of emotion. Sheriden (1751–1816 AD) attempted to write plays in the earlier style of Congreve.
- Goldsmith also wrote commendable plays. In the last thirty years of the century, the signs of change were visible. In the poetic works of Tomas Gray (1716–71 AD), Collins (1721–59 AD), Burns (1751–96 AD), Blake (1757–1827 AD), Cooper, etc., the disdain was clearly visible. is.
- Several trends and influences combined gave English literature a new romantic look right from the beginning of the nineteenth century. Now disregarding the rules and subjecting them to natural inspiration, poetry began to form. Imagination and emotion, unrestrained and style became restrained. The best reward for this new trend was Wordsworth (1770–1850 AD), Collieries (1772–1834 AD), Scott (1771–1832 AD), Shelley (1792–1822 AD), Keats (1795–1821 AD). , Occurred in poetry of Byron (1788–1824 AD) etc.
- Most of the poetry in this category is written in muktakas and filled with intense feeling. The romantic effect has also been targeted in Scott’s novels and the writings of the Lab Prabhriti essayists. Overall, the romantic literature of 40 years of the ninth century is very interesting and important.
- The Victorian era began around 1840 AD. The period of this era was long and romantic and Prabhan combined together to create a balanced state.
- The specialties of this new era were determined by the development of science and industrial advancement and materialistic philosophy . But at the same time, the earlier Kalpajanya sensational tendencies did not disappear. If Browning’s (1812–89 AD) poetry is more explicit in Romantic tendencies, then in the poetry of Tenison (1809–92 AD), classical features predominate. Later, the same mixture is visible in the compositions of Matthew Arnold (1822–88 AD), Meredith (1828–1909 AD), Hardy (1840–1928 AD).
- Prose literature was rising at a rapid pace. The actual depiction of novels by Dickens (1812–70 AD), etc., took the basis of psychology; Meredith and Hardy presented their new life philosophy in their creations. In this century, essay and criticism also got satisfactory progress.
- English literature of the twentieth century is integrated with diversity and innovation. Approved values are being checked again and new experiments are being done. Literature is being published in such abundance that it is difficult to cover it in general conclusions. In the plays first, realism was predominant. Bernard Shaw (1853–1950 AD), Galsvardi (1867–1933 AD) etc. have presented solutions to certain problems in their plays in the style of real representation.
- Here, poetic drama has made significant progress in the last thirty years. T. S. Elliot, Aaden, Stephen Spender, Christopher Fry, etc. have written influential poetic plays. The novels were first written on social subjects, then later on psychological facts. The lead authors of the first category are HG Wells (1866–1946 AD), Galsverdi, Arnold Bennett (1867–1913 AD), and the second category Virgina Wolff (1822–1941 AD), James Joyce (1822–1941) AD), Alds Huxley (1894 AD) etc.
- Here for the last few years Elizaveth Bowen, Compton Burnett, Graham Greene, etc. have written novels that pay special attention to the interestingness of the narrative. The twentieth century English poetry was traditional before 1920 AD. This is known from the works of Tomas Hardy, Rabert Bridges (1844–1930 AD) etc. There was a novelty in the writings of the Georgian poets, but they did not present a revolution in the field of poetry.
- The beginning of the new poem is T. S. Elliot did and was followed by Arden, Spender, Lewis, Mankneis, Dylan Tomas, etc., making him increasingly and more miraculous. T. S. Elliot and I.A. Richard has enriched English critical science in an unprecedented manner in the present century. Coleridge, Arnold, Walter Petter (1839–94 AD) as well as both of them will be counted among the leading English linguists.
- From about the middle of the 19th century, the promotion of English (which was the language of governance at that time) began to grow rapidly in India and consequently Hindi literature was influenced by English literature. Since then this effect (here the word effect is being used in its limited, classical sense) has continued to grow.
- Hindi prose developed to a great extent on the ideal of English prose. Some writers also put forward the ideal of ancient Sanskrit prose, but modern English prose was adopted instead. Hindi prose literature is the imprint of English literature on various organs.
- Hindi essays have imitated English essays. Hindi storytelling has adopted the tradition of the English novel, leaving the path of the ancient legend. Style, construction and purpose – Today’s Hindi novel is indebted to European novels.
- The same is true for short stories. Shakespearean plays in the 19th century influenced Hindi drama. They were translated and plays were written in the same manner. Subsequently, Hindi plays have been written under the influence of equal English plays. For example, the problematic plays of Hindi are clearly influenced by the works of Ibsen, Shaw and Galsvardi. The plays of Jaishankar Prasad have integrated the Indian and Western systems.
- Hindi poetry-drama is also influenced by Western poetry. Hindi poetry has gained influence from English poetry continuously after the 19th century. The 19th century English Romantic poets have had the most influence. In Chauistic poetry this effect is reflected on the steps. T.S. on Hindi poetry in last 25 years The works of Elliot and his later English poets have a special impact.
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