Satyajit Ray / Shotajit Roy ( English : Satyajit Ray , born: May 2 , 1921 – Death: April 23 , 1992 ) was one of the world’s greatest film personalities of the twentieth century, who gave a new direction to films of realistic stream. Other than literature , painting Like in other genres, he also showed his talent. Satyajit Rai is primarily known as a director in films, but has also earned a notable reputation as a writer and litterateur. Satyajit Rai himself used to do many works related to filmmaking. These include directing, cinematography, screenplay, background music, art direction, editing, etc. In addition to being a filmmaker, he was also a storyteller, painter and film critic.
Satyajit Ray considered writing the plot an integral part of direction. Satyajit Ray directed 37 films in his life, including feature films, documentaries and short films. His first film ‘Pather Panchali’ received a total of eleven international awards, including the “Best Human Document” award received at the Cannes Film Festival. Satyajit Rai Bharat Ratna, which gives new recognition to Indian films in the world( 1992 ) in addition to Padma Shri ( 1958 ), Padma Bhushan ( 1965 ), Padma Vibhushan ( 1976 ) and Ramon Magsaysay Award ( 1967 ). Satyajit Rai received an honorary ‘Oscar Award’ for his unprecedented contribution to world cinema. In addition, he and his work received a total of 32 National Film Awards .The legendary director of world cinema, Akira Kurosawa, said for Rai, “A cinema without Satyajit Rai is the same as a sky without sun and moon”.
Sukumar Rai’, the father of the only child of his parents, Satyajit Rai died in 1923 when Satyajit Rai was barely two years old. He was raised by his mother ‘Suprabha Rai’ in his brother’s house, among my siblings, a whole and dispersed clan of maternal uncles. His mother, who was the owner of a long-standing personality, Bal satyajit rai. She was a composed singer of Ravindra Sangeetand her voice was very strong. Satyajit Rai’s grandfather ‘Upendrakishor Rai’ was a writer and painter and his father also wrote interesting poems for children in Bengali and was also a painter. The family was unavoidably close to the Tagore family. After graduating from Presidency College Calcutta, Rai went to Santiniketan , Ravindra Bharti University, founded by Rabindranath Tagore, for the study of painting in which he had demonstrated his qualifications at an early stage .
Education in Santiniketan
At that time, Santiniketan was well-known not only in the country but around the world as the center of the new Indian consciousness of literature and art. The fascination for Rabindranath Tagore drew students and teachers from all over India . Students from other countries also came here and thus the conditions for the development of a new Indian culture were being created which were based on their own traditions. In Santiniketan, Satyajit Rai received education from accomplished artists such as Nandlal Bose and Vinod Bihari Mukhopadhyay, on whom he later made the film ‘Inner Eye’.
Institute of Press and Publishing
In 1942 opinion after visiting the central Indian art monuments left Santiniketan. He was soon joined by a British advertising agency ‘D.J. Satyajit Ray was employed as a Commercial Artist at Kemer & Company, where he did a substantial amount of designing and designing the cover pages of books. He did this for the leading publishing institution ‘Signet Press’, which set new standards in the field of Indian book publishing. One of the books he illustrated was a short version of Pather Panchali of ‘Vibhuti Bhushan Bandyopadhyay’.
Satyajit Ray, who gave popular films like Pather Panchali ‘,’ Devi ” Charulata ‘, was well ahead of his time. His thinking and outlook was very different from that of a common man. Satyajit Ray, who made these immortal films to the country, used to make the cover of books ‘cover’, very few people would know. Born in Calcutta on May 2, 1921, Satyajit Ray initially started his job as a junior visualizer in the advertising agency.
During this time he made covers of some of the best books, the main ones being Jim Corbett’s ‘Man Eaters of Kumayu’ and Jawaharlal Nehru’s Discovery of India. Who knew then that the boy who made the cover of books would become the first Indian filmmaker to make international recognition. Ray was not only an excellent writer but a filmmaker with a different perspective. His debut film Pather Panchali won several international awards, including the Cannes Film Festival’s ‘Best Human Document’ award.
Ray had to struggle a lot to make ‘Pather Panchali’, even mortgaging his wife’s jewelery, but the success of this film took away all his troubles.
Ray was the second person in the film world after Charlie Chaplin to be awarded a doctorate by Oxford University. He was honored with the Bharat Ratna Dada Saheb Phalke Honorary Oscar and many other awards in the country and abroad.
Satyajit Ray and Feluda
Satyajit da’s unique imaginativeness is revealed by his stories adorned with the feats of ‘Feluda Topse’ and ‘Prof. Shanku’. It is as if they had the power to look into the future. The characters of Feluda and Prof. Shankoo he invented still tickle people and his exploits still feel the same freshness as when they were written.
Feluda’s popularity is so high that he is called Desi Sherlock Holmes. No other Indian novelist or writer has got as much popularity as Ray’s Feluda and Prof. Shanku got it. Impressed by Ray’s talent, former Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru urged him to make a documentary on Rabindranath Tagore.
Satyajit Ray and critics
Some critics were quick to say that Ray’s films were very slow, but his fans responded strongly to these criticisms, saying that his films are like a slow flowing river that is relaxed. Ray’s popularity shows that in 2007, the BBC announced last year to include two stories of his character Feluda in his radio program.
Satyajit Ray and Apu triology
This film was made in three parts. The first part was Pother Panchali, the second part Aparajito and the third part was Apur Sonsar. The three parts of the film were well liked throughout the country. This film also opened the doors to the international arts sector for Indian cinema.
Satyajit Ray And Pather Panchali
Pather Panchali is the first movie directed by Satyajit Ray based on a novel by Bibhutibhushan Bandyopadhyay. Bibhuti is believed to have written ‘Pather Panchali’ inspired by her own life. The author’s own father was a priest and the vocals were quite good. Bibhuti’s mother was a village girl. Although she did not have a sister of her own, Durga’s character bears a resemblance to one of her Pistuto sisters. An old PCO lived with them.
Bibhutibhushan passed matriculation from the village school and came to Kolkata and got admission in the college. He got married while still in college and his wife died of an influenza pandemic a year later. After that he did not think of getting married for a long time. He remarried in his mid-forties. Inspired by a friend, he started sending episodes to a magazine in the form of episodes, which were later published in book form.
Speaking of 1950, Bibhutbhushan has passed away. When Ray asked his newly widowed wife to make a movie based on the novel ‘Pather Panchali’, he did not refuse and said that Bibhutibhushan had always had such an idea in his mind.
Ray then started looking for actors for the characters. Kanu Bandyopadhyay of Mancha Natak was chosen for the role of Apur Baba Harihar. Even if you advertise in newspapers for Apu’s character, you don’t get anyone like Mann. Eventually Vijaya Roy sees Subir Banerjee playing on the roof next to his house, thus fixing him for the character of Apu. Uma found Dasgupta for the role of Durga through a friend.
A friend of Satyajit suggested his wife’s name for the character of Apu’s mother, Sarvajaya, Karuna Banerjee. But Karuna Mancha did not agree to work in cinema even though she worked in drama. Later, after talking to Satyajit Ray, they all agreed. Chunibala Devi was chosen for the role of Indira Thakrun, and as soon as she met him, Satyajit decided to play the character with her. Chunibala Devi said that even though there was no such demand, she had to have some opium in her shooting every day and she lost her mind on the day when it was not kept.
Satyajit Ray’s first film, Sitting in Santiniketan, he sketched his own thoughts on different scenes from the novel. They keep looking for producers. None of the commercial films agreed to work on the Bengali story without Satyajit’s songs and dances, but Satyajit Ray did not back down.
In early 1952, shooting could not be started due to lack of funds. Ray borrowed some money from his insurance and left for Gopalnagar with Subrata Mitra. After capturing some scenes there, he changed his place and decided to set up Baral village, six miles away from Kolkata, as a shooting spot. He started shooting for the first time in a field on October 26, 1952.
Apu and her father Harihar Roy (Kanu Bandyopadhyay), mother Sarvajaya (Karuna Bandyopadhyay), sister Durga (Uma Dasgupta), Psima Indir Thakurun (Chunibala Devi) are the story of Apu’s first movie ‘Pather Panchali’. The first scene of the movie shows Durga stealing fruit from a neighbor’s garden and leaving it for her psima (although this was not the first scene captured). Durga’s mother Sarvajaya had to listen to harsh words about this and her anger fell on Durga and Indira Thakur. Then Apur is born around whom the next story flows.
Apur Baba Harihar is a priest by profession, his income is small. The voice of the song is very beautiful and one day he dreams that he will be able to earn more by writing Jatrapala. When it comes to making a simple family of simple Harihar, Sarvajaya has to take care of the whole world. Satyajit Ray has beautifully portrayed this whole thing in the middle of various conversations between ‘Sarvajaya’ and ‘Harihar’ in the movie.
It is difficult to provide food for everyone in such a small sense. That is why Sarvajaya’s negative attitude towards Indira Thakur is expressed from the very beginning of the movie. As a result, Indira Thakrun used to go to a neighbour’s house for some time and when he came to see Vita from there, he left after hearing Sarvajaya’s harsh words and that was his last journey.
In this movie, Apu Durga’s relationship is shown with great affection. Apu loved Durga like her mother and on the other hand she would not let go of quarreling with each other all day long. The experience of seeing Apu’s first train with Durga. Standing in the middle of white cashew flowers, Apu’s eyes were filled with surprise at the sight of the train leaving with black smoke. This is the first scene captured by Ray. In the scene, Apu starts looking for Durga through the middle of Kashful. Subir Banerjee, who played the role of Apu, could not express the idea in any way. At that time, Satyajit Ray sometimes blocked Subir’s path with stones and hid some people among the cough flowers to call Subir’s name so that the idea of finding Apu’s character could come out, looking at one side.
The next scene of this scene was the one that will see the death of Indira Thakur from Apu Durga on the way home, that is the death experience of the first person close to Apu. Indira Thakur has done a great job in this scene. The whole scene is Ray’s own improvisation. Because in the original novel, Indira Thakur died in the mandapa and in the house of another neighbor. It seemed to him that in the middle of the bamboo garden, Apu and Durga discovering his corpse would bring a different dimension and he was right.
Apu Durga’s going to bring sweets together, looking at the bioscope, wet in the rain, all the scenes are full of pure joy. In the scene of watching the bioscope, a dog walks behind Apu Durga. It took about twelve times to capture this scene correctly and to lure the dog with a sweet in Umar’s hand.
In the middle of the movie, Apur Baba goes to the city in search of Harihar’s fortune, he does not return for months, he also stops writing letters. During this time, Sarvajaya manages the family with all his might. Then when Harihar came back after various disasters, he saw that his house was broken and his people were lost. After deciding to leave the village, Apu finds Durga’s stolen beads. He throws it in the middle of the kutipana frozen in the water. When the kutipana became empty and the bead garland sank, the place was filled with kutipana again.
The last scene of the movie shows Apu traveling to Kashi with her parents.
Throughout the movie, Satyajit Ray has revealed the main essence of the story through various contradictions. Indir Thakuran’s all-encompassing sneer was against Durga’s many choices, Apu Durga’s return home with the joy of watching the train was like discovering Indir Thakur’s body in the middle of the road, returning from Harihar city with various things for children was like Durga’s absence, broken house.
Ray’s story of ‘Pather Panchali’, which was formed in response to various blows of rural life, has reached a new level, which has left a mark on people’s minds till date.
Satyajit & Aparajito
Although the movie ‘Pather Panchali’ is centered on an entire village, the movie ‘Aparajit’ covers the villages of Bengal, Kashi and the alleys of Kolkata. The whole thing goes through a journey, as well as Apu’s mentality. The first scene of the movie ‘Aparajit’ shows the river, village, bridge, Tepantar running through the window of the train leaving Nishchindipur for Kashi. Then he went to Kashi on the banks of the Ganges, to live there. The next scene shows a familiar face, Sarvajayake (Karuna Banerjee), in the backyard of an old house in Kashi.
Bansi Chandragupta, the art director of the undefeated movie, decided to build this backyard set in a Kolkata studio instead of under the open sky for fear of rain. Cinematographers Subrata Mitra, Chandragupta and Satyajit both tried to explain that it is not possible to make outside light in a studio. But Ray was stubborn. As a result, Subrata was able to invent the first use of bounce lighting in cinematography. Here an open sky environment was created using the reflection of light on white cloth instead of the sky, which has never been done in cinema before.
In the movie, Harihar (Kanu Banerjee) earns his living by reciting Vedas at Ganga Ghat in Kashi and Apu (Pinaki Sen Gupta) wanders around here and there all day as there is no school here. When Apu and Sarvajaya go to see the evening worship at the temple, Sarvajaya looks mesmerized and on the contrary Apu is very expressionless. The difference between mother and son’s thoughts has become clear from the beginning of the movie.
Then on the second day, when the whole house was decorated with lamps, Harihar went back to his house and went to bed feeling ill. When Apu came, he called Harihar’s son to himself. In this scene, Satyajit has beautifully portrayed the relationship between Harihar and Apu. The next morning, Harihar went to the ghat despite Sarvajaya’s ban, and fell ill on the way back. And in the morning he took his last breath with the water of the Ganges in his mouth. Ray portrays Harihar’s death in a very simple way, There is no mourning even after death. Rather, it becomes bigger than reality, the struggle for survival.
Although the movie ‘Aparajit’ did not gain as much popularity in the country as ‘Pather Panchali’, the movie has received rave reviews outside the country. According to director Mrinal Sen and Hrithik Ghatak, one of Ray’s best works is ‘Aparajit’. ‘Undefeated’ has been screened at the Cannes Film Festival, won two awards at the Venice Film Festival, as well as being screened in New York for about eight weeks.Ray’s style of telling this story has never been seen before in Bengali cinema. This movie has added a new dimension to Bengali cinema by removing various doubts of Ray. In this movie, he highlights the depth of the mother-son relationship beyond the mother’s affection or the son’s humility, as well as the journey from Apu in Nishchindipur to becoming Apu in Kolkata.
Satyajit Ray and Apur Sansar : Witness to history
Soumitra Chatterjee, the protagonist of the third episode about the young Apu, spoke on the BBC’s Witness program about Ray’s filmmaking and his performance in the role of Apu.
Bibhutibhushan Bandyopadhyay’s story The way Ray portrayed the story of Apu growing up in a family struggling with extreme poverty in Oz Paragaon, Bengal, in Pather Panchali, made him one of the most influential film directors in the world of film. Besides, this is the first time that this film has presented a picture of rural life in India to the people of the world.
Soumitra Chatterjee says that Ray had a special ability to see and touch everything through poetry and melody which set him apart from others.
Soumitra Chatterjee was very young when Pather Panchali was released. He remembers how the film affected him and his friends.
“It was unthinkable for any director in our country to make such a film,” he said. We were curious to see what he would do next. “
Then Ray set to work on making the next episode of Pather Panchali ‘Aparajit’. The story of the boy Apu becoming a teenager. Director Satyajit Ray invited Soumitra Chatterjee to play the role of Apu. Soumitra was shocked because he had never acted in a movie before.
Soumitra Chatterjee was too old to play the role of teenage Apu in the second episode of Apu Kahini, so he did not get a chance to play Aparajit. However, when Satyajit Ray undertook the task of making the third and final episode ‘Apur Sansar’, he cast Soumitra in the lead role.
Soumitra says the place of self-confidence brought international fame to Ray. The three-episode Apu story ‘Apusha Trilogy’ garnered worldwide acclaim. These were his first Indian films to make a splash in world cinema and to win several awards.
On this BBC program, Soumitra Chatterjee said that the pictures of Satyajit Ray moved the heart. He does not think that another Ray will be born in Bengal in the next 50 years.
Ray died in 1992. Soumitra Chatterjee has acted in 14 of his films. He is still acting on the silver screen and stage.
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