Sun Birth structure atmosphere: The Sun is a star around which our earth and other small and large objects of the solar family revolve. It is a very important and influential part of our solar system. It contains 99.8% mass of the entire solar system. It is a huge reservoir of energy. It generates so much energy every second, as much energy as can be obtained from the explosion of the world’s most powerful 18.200 million thermonuclear bombs.
A small part of its energy is received in the form of light and heat on Earth, due to which life here is possible.
We all know that the Sun is one of the billions of stars in our galaxy ‘Mandakini’ that revolve around the center of the galaxy. It is located in the interior of the spiral arm, called the ‘Orion Arm’, close to the last boundary of Mandakini. Its distance from the center of the galaxy is 26,000 light-years.
The Sun with its eight planets and other bodies revolves around the center of the galaxy at a speed of 8,00,000 Km / hr. This means that we travel 20,000 Km every 90 seconds orbiting the galaxy.
Earlier astronomers considered the sun to be a dwarf star, but, studies over a decade ago have shown that it is not a dwarf star but a medium-sized star, which is 1.4 million kilometers in width (Earth’s) 109 times more than the width) and huge so that 1.3 million planets like Earth merge into it.
The Sun is located 150 million kilometers away from the Earth. This distance of the Earth from the Sun is called the ‘ Astronomical unit ‘. The stellar system closest to the sun is called ‘Alpha Centauri’. It is a cluster of three stars – Alpha Centauri A, Alpha Centauri B and Alpha Centauri C, located 4.36 light-years from Earth.
Birth of the sun – when and how? – Sun Birth structure atmosphere
The universal principle related to the birth of the Sun in cosmology is called ‘Nebular Theory’. This law was propounded in 1755 by the German philosopher ‘Emanuel Kant’.
According to this rule – the Sun was born 4.6 billion years ago from a large nebula and nebula consisting of dust and gases (mainly hydrogen and helium ).
For your information, tell us that the nebula is a cloud made of dust and gases present in the interstellar sky, which extends for millions of kilometers with very low density between the stars.Interstellar space: Interstellar space is the space between stars in a galaxy, which is independent of the effect of stars. The substances and radiation present in this interstellar sky are called interstellar medium. These substances can be gas, celestial dust, or cosmic rays. About 70% of the mass in this medium consists only of hydrogen atoms and the rest of helium atoms.
As you have already known; The density of the nebula is very low but, according to an estimate, about 6 billion years ago, extremely powerful energy waves from a dead star explosion brought a nebula’s clouds closer. Due to which they are very dense, due to the force of gravity, they started colliding and shrinking.
This process of continuous collision and shrinkage caused gaseous clouds to take the shape of a rotating sphere. This process continued for about 10,000 to 10,00,000 years.
As the collision process progressed, the temperature, pressure, and velocity of rotation inside the gaseous sphere increased. The acceleration of the rotation greatly increased the centrifugal force of the sphere, resulting in the creation of a core at its center.
Gradually, this core started glowing due to the friction and heat of its internal substances. This was the first stage of star formation. This stage is called scientific predecessor and Protostar. The North East remained in this state for about 5 million years and when its temperature rose to 14999982.22 ° C, nuclear fusion began in it, which turned it into a full-blown star and thus our sun was born.
You can also understand the whole process of the birth of the sun through the diagram below –
Internal structure and Solar atmosphere
We can divide the entire structure of the Sun into two parts –
- Interior – This part includes the Sun’s thermonuclear core, Radiation zone and Convection zone.
- Solar Atmosphere – The Sun’s atmosphere consists of three layers. These layers are – Photosphere, Chromosphere and Kirit and Corona.
The source of the entire energy of the Sun is the ‘core’ located in its inner core. Which is also called the Sun’s nucleus furnace. Its radius is only 25 percent (1,75,000 Km) of the sun’s radius. At the center, it has a density of 150 g / cm 3 (150 times the density of water) and a temperature of 150 million degrees Celsius. It is made of hot and dense plasma, whose pressure is about 26500 times.
Plasma: In the world, matter can be divided into four states – solid (ice), liquid (water), gas (vapor) and plasma (glow of celestial light, gas of a fluorescent bulb, etc.). The basic difference between solid, liquid and gases is the difference in kinetic energy of the particles present in them. Plasma is an ionized gas, from which the kinetic energy in it increases as the temperature increases. The Sun and other stars are dense and extremely ionized plasma with a central temperature of more than millions of Kelvin and very high density. Plasma is the most common form of matter that permeates more than 99 percent in the visible world and the solar system.Sun Birth structure atmosphere
How does the sun produce huge amounts of energy?
All the energy transmitted by the Sun arises from the process of nuclear fusion going on continuously in its core. The sun is made up of about 73% hydrogen, 25% helium and some amount of heavy metals like oxygen, carbon, neon and iron.
The process of fusion in the core causes hydrogen atoms to convert to helium. As we know – the mass of one atom of hydrogen is 1.0078 atomic mass units and the mass of one atom of helium is 4.0026 atomic mass units. When 4 atoms of hydrogen are converted into 1 atom of helium, then 0.0294 mass units is converted into mass energy. Similarly, about 600 million metric tons of hydrogen per second are converted into nuclei of helium, which produces 3.86 x 10 26 joules of energy every second .
Radiation Board: The energy released from the core moves as electromagnetic radiation into the radiating system. As the distance of this mantle from the Sun’s core increases, its temperature decreases from 7 million Kelvin to 2 million Kelvin, and to its upper limit its density also decreases from 20 g / cm 3 to 0.2 g / cm 3 . it happens.
Convection board: The zone of convection zone starts after the radiation. This mandal is 5,00,000 km from the sun’s core. Is located far, which extends almost to the surface of the sun. In this region, the solar plasma is not very hot and dense due to which the heat energy does not reach the solar atmosphere as radiation from the interior of the Sun. However, due to lower density of the plasma here, convection waves develop which make the sun’s energy Takes it to the surface.
Solar-atmosphere: The region around the convection system is further divided into three circles, which are called the photosphere, theosphere and the circle respectively.
The energy of the center of the Sun converts into light rays as they reach the photosphere. Since our eyes are able to accept only light rays, we can see this lighthouse. The thickness of the photosphere is about 100 kilometers.
Around 2000 km thickness around the photosphere is called the chromosphere. Calcium, hydrogen, etc. gases are deposited in the atmosphere. During a full solar eclipse, the spectrum appears to glow as a thin red ring. The temperature of the chromosome is estimated at around 4,320 ° C.
Surrounding the chromosphere is the Sun’s circle, which is actually the Sun’s atmosphere composed of rare gases. Its outer surface is called kirit (corona). In deep space, the temperature of the corona extending up to millions of kilometers is about 10,00,000 degree Celsius. At such a high temperature, the gases present in the corona have ionized and reached the fourth state of the substance, which is called plasma.
Will Sun ever die? – Sun Birth structure atmosphere
Yes! Like other stars, the sun will also end one day. Presently the Sun is in the middle of its life. It will continue to provide us with our own energy for about 5 or 6 billion years. But when the fuel (hydrogen) inside it is exhausted, then it will become so huge as the red giant star that it will swallow the planets near it – Mercury, Venus and maybe even our Earth.
After the state of the red demon star, the degenerate helium in the sun’s core will burn suddenly within a few minutes to convert 6% of the core and about 40% of the sun’s mass into carbon. Due to this process, the sun will shrink 10 times more than today, the brightness will decrease by 50 times and the temperature will decrease slightly.
Finally, when the helium of the Sun’s core is completely depleted, the Sun will take the form of a white dwarf and will remain in this state for trillions of years.
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